Who invented the method of radiocarbon dating
Carbon-14 is constantly be generated in the atmosphere and cycled through the carbon and nitrogen cycles.
Once an organism is decoupled from these cycles (i.e., death), then the carbon-14 decays until essentially gone.
Another problem derives from the “reservoir effect” in which old material, limestone or graphite, has contaminated the samples.
This is particularly true of marine samples and contemporary shells may seem to be hundreds of years old.
C is created in the atmosphere by cosmic radiation and is taken up by plants and animals as long as they live.
Upon death, the isotope begins to decay and after 5730±40 years half of it is gone.
In 1940 Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben at the University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory did just that.
This number is called a standard deviation and is a measure of the spread of measurements around the mean (average).Libby estimated that the steady-state radioactivity concentration of exchangeable carbon-14 would be about 14 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per gram.In 1960, Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for this work.The technique of radiocarbon dating was developed by Willard Libby and his colleagues at the University of Chicago in 1949.Emilio Segrè asserted in his autobiography that Enrico Fermi suggested the concept to Libby at a seminar in Chicago that year.